By Thijs Weststeijn
The obvious World explores the writings of Dutch painter and poet Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627–78)—one of Rembrandt’s pupils—and clarifies his use of painterly topics and concept from the Dutch Golden Age. Van Hoogstraten drew on a number of literary, philosophical, and creative assets, in addition to from historical past and commute money owed, in writing has magnum opus, Introduction to the Academy of portray; or the noticeable World (1678) a cross-section of basic seventeenth-century perspectives on artwork in Holland. wondering the factors of artists represented by way of van Hoogstraten’s thought, in addition to the contested matters in the back of Dutch realism and its hidden symbolism, writer Thijs Weststeijn offers an formidable evaluation of seventeenth-century portray in the course of the eyes of latest Dutch artists from the age.
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Additional info for The Visible World: Samuel van Hoogstraten's Art Theory and the Legitimation of Painting in the Dutch Golden Age (Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age)
37 In the same vein, De Lairesse considers ‘that no much less paintings is excited about depicting a rough topic than a significant one, a peasant than a courtier, a donkey than a horse; seeing that sound wisdom is simply as essential to depict one because the different. ’38 to quote one final instance, the ‘ideology of imitation’ recommend right here corresponds to the substance of a recognized statement ascribed to Caravaggio (c. 1620): the painter supposedly stated ‘that he wanted simply as a lot ability to make a good portray of flora as to make one depicting human figures. ’39 The theoretical emphasis at the luck of imitation is appropriate to Van Hoogstraten’s statement, quoted past, that ‘the gruesome should be made attractive’ through advantage of the ‘naturalness’ practised by means of the painter. during this admire he echoes one in all Junius’s conclusions: ‘not onely the Imitation of faire yet of foule issues additionally doth recreate our mindes ... the Imitation [is] alwayes counseled, no matter if shee doth expresse the similitude of items foule or faire’. forty 1 2 three four five 6 7 eight nine 10 eleven 12 thirteen 14 15 sixteen 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 forty forty-one forty two forty three forty four forty five forty six ‘Imitatio auctoris’ In seventeenth-century paintings literature, imitating examples is a extra advanced topic than following nature: opposite to what one may possibly anticipate, it comprises a better threat of failure. Ripa’s personification of Imitatione or Naevolginge, whose attributes of brushes and masks establish her with portray and drama, is depicted with one foot on a monkey, symbolizing imitatio insipiens, unthinking imitation (fig. 43). forty-one Van Hoogstraten too takes a unfavourable view of ‘aping’ different masters, and Junius rejects the slavish imitation of different artists’ types as ‘an apish imitation of the outward ornaments’. forty two Angel calls such ‘apish’ imitation eerdieverij, robbery of honour. forty three This senseless kind of imitation is essentially linked to the process of rapen, borrowing from the paintings of others, a subject matter studied at size by means of Emmens (1964). the chance of borrowing too arbitrarily is that the end result could be a chaotic mess; De Lairesse describes a operating approach within which borrowings are mixed carelessly, which he compares to the unnecessary chemistry of an alchemist: ‘Indeed, a painter of this type isn't not like the typical Alchemists, who, eager to make gold, toss every thing into the crucible that they comprehend to have the ability to melting, brewing all of it day and evening, squandering every thing they've got on the earth, [and] ultimately discovering not anything within the all-consuming crucible aside from a bit foam from i do know no longer what sort of non-metal, with neither color nor weight. ’44 The Dutch theorists agree that there also are praiseworthy forms of imitatio auctoris. Van Hoogstraten’s doctrine during this regard derives from Roman pedagogics in response to the imitation of types, which shaped the nucleus of schooling on the Latin institution. Copying was once deemed to be an invaluable, if no longer crucial, a part of the painter’s schooling besides: ‘Copying all demeanour of work [is] a typical and extremely priceless workout for younger scholars, specifically if the instance is a good murals.